Archive for October 17, 2016

How to Get Your Students Empathizing Through Novel Engineering

How to Get Your Students Empathizing Through Novel Engineering


Why teach empathy?

After watching this RSA Animate about the importance of empathy and outrospection (, I realized that I wasn’t doing enough to prepare my students for the “good life,” as it is put in the video. Philosopher Roman Krznaric espouses that in the 20th century, people believed that the “best way to discover who we are and what to do with our lives was to look inside ourselves.” He asserts that this line of thinking does not accomplish what it sets out to do; thus, in the 21st century we need to look outwardly at the lives of other people, civilizations, and cultures. He claims that the ultimate art form for the age of outrospection is empathy.


Why should students care?

As a fifth grade teacher, I knew that empathy would be a tough sell for pre-pubescent tweens, who often think the entire world is looking at them and making judgments (both positive and negative). How could I increase buy in? What’s in it for them? Why should they develop their empathy muscles? After all, they live in a society where some are praised for their self-serving mentality. In fact, Donald Trump is a living testament to the lack of a need to think empathically as he denounces our “PC culture.”


Krynaric offers several examples to show that empathy is becoming a popular word in our culture today, but he has a simplistic way of looking at its value. Empathy doesn’t just make you a more moral person; it is a philosophy of living with major benefits- improved relationships, the ability to think more creatively, and the creation of “human bonds that make life worth living.” In other words, empathy is not only ethically good, but you will get something out of it too.


Beyond that, however, he explains that empathy has great power, specifically the power to bring about “radical social change.” My students care about problems in the world, but feel helpless in the face of seemingly insurmountable obstacles. Perhaps, intentionally practicing the type of empathy that Kryanic describes as cognitive empathy-“perspective taking…stepping into somebody else’s world,” my students will be able to see that empathy isn’t just a noble and fluffy idea for “do-gooders.” My hope is that they will be able to see empathy as a vehicle for change.


What does empathy look like?

Human beings naturally make assumptions about people and label people into different categories based on the prejudices we have developed. Kryanic tells us that highly empathic people “get beyond those labels by nurturing their curiosity about others.” We need to teach our students to become “empathic adventurers.” How do we accomplish this? We know the following about highly empathic people:


  1. They are good listeners. They are good at understanding the needs of others.
  2. They “make themselves vulnerable” in conversations. They connect with others and share parts of their own lives.
  3. They empathize with individuals, but they also empathize with collective groups.
  4. They don’t only empathize with the downtrodden. They step into the shoes of those in power and empathize with them as well.
  5. They empathize with people across space and time (people in the future and in other countries).


How does STEAM relate to empathy?

STEAM (science, technology, engineering, art, and math) is the buzzword of the minute in education today. Female and minority students are not choosing these career paths, and our science and math scores continue to slip behind those in other developed nations. As a result, the STEAM movement has picked up momentum. Anecdotally, I think my female students in particular are not usually drawn to these types of careers because they seem disconnected from human experiences. Students see these jobs as careers for intelligent people who don’t like being around others- those who want to look at data and facts all day in seclusion.


Of course, we know that this isn’t the case, but how do we convey that to our students? The answer is empathy. Students need to see engineers as problem solvers who care about others, not people who solve isolated problems in a disconnected way. In fact, design centric companies like Ubur and Apple actively recruit employees who can think empathically with consumers when designing prototypes.


What is Novel Engineering?

I learned about Novel Engineering at the STEM Institute at Washington University in the summer of 2015. It was originally developed in 2014 by the Tufts University Center for Engineering Education and Outreach. Essentially, this teaching strategy is a process that can be used for any age group for teachers of any subject, hence its mass appeal.


The concept is simple. Students read a book (or a teacher reads a book to the whole class), and look for problems in the story. They choose a problem that they want to solve through the engineering design process. Then, students work to empathize with their client and understand his/her concerns, personality, and the constraints in the book that limit him/her. Then, they develop a product that will help this character to solve the problem that aligns with the client’s needs that they have considered. After that, they present their designs to small groups of students to receive constructive feedback. It is important that this feedback be in the middle of the design process and not at the end. Students must have time to improve their designs based on this feedback. Then, they work to change their designs in preparation for their final presentation.


What does Novel Engineering look like in practice?

I have completed a few Novel Engineering activities with my classes over the past two years, and I have seen its benefits in helping to stretch my students’ empathic thinking. For example, we read the book Muncha, Muncha, Muncha, a picture book about a gardener who becomes frustrated when three rabbits continue to outsmart him and eat all of his vegetables. Eventually, he creates a huge tower to surround his garden, but the rabbits still manage to sneak in by slipping into Mr. McGreely’s basket. This is what the novel engineering process looked like in my fifth grade classroom:


Identify a Problem and Understand the Client

My students had to decide if they wanted to help the rabbits or Mr. McGreely. Then, they wrote a list of noticings about the character (personality traits, etc.) with text evidence to support their thinking. Following that, they had to decide what problem they would solve for their character. Then, they had to design a solution that would work for the character’s personality and specific needs. Mr. McGreely, for example, had been dreaming of having a garden for a long time. The students empathized with his selfishness, even if they didn’t condone it. They worked to understand why he would create such barriers for the rabbits- maybe the rabbits are making him feel stupid? Maybe his pride is hurting? They also had to understand that it appeared that Mr. McGreely lived alone, so the product would have to be something he could use and operate on his own, while helping him with his self-esteem and still helping him to fulfill his lifelong dream of having a garden. Their solutions had to be humane (they could not hurt the rabbits) and legal.


Some students chose the rabbits as their clients. Many students identified that although the rabbits were smaller and seemingly less powerful that Mr. McGreely, they were determined. The students wondered if the rabbits could find food elsewhere. Were they hungry and desperate or did they see this as a challenge? They decided to capitalize on the teamwork skills the rabbits showed throughout the book and create prototypes that could be used and operated by more than one “person.”


Design a Solution

I made available many everyday objects for students to use to build their prototypes: string, fishing line, boxes, clay, popsicle sticks, rubber bands, plastic cups, wax paper, cling wrap, zip ties, pipe cleaners, wire, construction paper, plates, cotton balls, coffee filters, egg cartons, etc. Students worked with their team members to design a solution that would work for their client while fulfilling their client’s unique needs, while fitting with the natural constraints within the story.



I split the class into two groups to offer feedback. Students would present their prototype to their audience, and their classmates would offer feedback using the “yes, and” stem to frame their comment. They had to recognize something their teammates did that was good (example: I like how you thought about how all three rabbits would be able to play a part in the launcher you made). Then, they had to offer a suggestion about how to improve the design or something they could consider (and I think it might be smart to think about how the rabbits will get out once they have made it inside the fortress, not just how they will get in). The team would simply respond, “Thank you for your suggestion.” They would not reply or defend themselves, and they could choose to take the feedback or not once they returned to their workstation. In not simply providing corrective feedback to each other, students had to empathize with their classmates’ thinking. What went well with their design and why did they design it that way? Additionally, by using “yes, and” language, students proactively empathized with how “yes, but” might feel to designers.


Improve Designs

Students eagerly went back to their workstations to improve their designs. Because the feedback opportunity was strategically placed in the middle of the cycle, students could receive low-risk corrections that they could try out with their design. They used this information to enhance their prototypes and address their classmates’ questions/concerns. I told my students to not be offended by corrective feedback that they felt was not needed, but to empathize with the people giving the feedback. Why did they not understand their design? What could they do to help people understand their vision better? What did they do that wasn’t coming across to others clearly?


Present Solutions

Students shared their designs with the whole class and received positive (not corrective) feedback from classmates at this time. Students would share their understanding of their client and the problem and discuss how their product would align with both of these.


Empathy in the Classroom

Of course, teaching empathy cannot start and end with novel engineering. This can simply serve as the starting line. We must be purposeful and direct with our students when it comes to teaching empathy. They aren’t dumb; they know that empathy benefits others.   It is our job to tell our students how empathy can do more than shape them into compassionate people- they will receive positive benefits from practicing empathy that will help them as well. Perhaps, then, our students will become adults that don’t just talk the empathy talk, but actually walk the empathy walk. What a different world it could be.

BLOG: 5E’s How To Get Off Welfare


5E’s of How To Get Off Welfare


When the Great Depression happened in this country and over half of the country abled bodied worker were unemployed President Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Social Security Act was enacted in 1935.  This Act was a social act loss given to families to subsidize the loss of an income producing father. Welfare encompasses those government programs that provide benefits and economic assistance to no or low income Americans. It can also be defined as financial assistance to poor Americans  supplied by paid taxes of the working class. One of the main goals of welfare US is to improve the quality of life and living standards for the poor and underprivileged. Welfare help is usually extended to people groups other than just the poor and underprivileged such as the elderly, the disabled, students, and unpaid workers, such as mothers and caregivers.  The intent of welfare in its inception was great, but the results has been a catastrophe because now there is massive abuse from abled body people not wanting to do anything different.

Below are some of the main welfare programs being abused by abled body people

Welfare programs available in the United States include: Medicaid, Food Stamps, Supplemental Security Income (SSI), Housing and Urban Development (HUD) programs, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), Head Start, Work Study, and Medicare. Social Security, often times called an entitlement program, is also considered one of the welfare programs in the U.S.. TANF is probably one of the most recognized and abused of the welfare programs. Formerly known as Aid to Families with Dependant Children (AFDC), TANF was a reform measure for this program. No longer a lifelong program as AFDC was, TANF limits welfare benefits to a specified period of time. The states set these limitations, and most state’s plans terminate TANF benefits after five years.  The clock of TANF stops and even starts over when a women is pregnant with a new child.


My process steps below are intended for abled body people to have a means to get off the welfare system with my 5E’s.



If only environments you know are the ones that is keeping you in poverty, then those are the environments you will want.   Normally those receipts on welfare assistance collaborate with others in the same situation.  The adage, “Birds of a feather flock together.”  If you want more you must expose yourself to more.  If nothing is what you shot for, then nothing is what you will hit.  Intentionally seek friendships, programs and associations with people that are not on or about welfare.  This means you need to start hanging out with the opposite of people you currently hang with because you want to expand not disband your life.  For starters catch the bus, cab or drive to a wealthy area and observe their parks, houses, malls and daily life in their communities.  This should spark a noticeable difference to you in your head about your own situation.




*Take advantage of free classes offered to you *Read about 30 minutes every day*Watch a TED talk *Read up on “funny” material* Learn a new word everyday* Watch documentaries * Take up a new language * Follow blogs *Do crossword puzzles *Join a reading clubs.  If you are going to get more in your hip pocket you got to get more in your head socket.  To earn more you need to learn more.  Formal classroom learning may not be the route for you at first, but you can start reading books, magazines and googling areas of your learning interest now. Remember whatever you learn new is education and this can be done without traditional classrooms.   Inform yourself about topics like business, housing, politics, money, fitness and health as starters.


You need to become motivated to be delivered off welfare like it is a disease.   Often times the mood of those on welfare is of the groom and doom.  I believe that you receive into your life what type of emotions you give out.  Find a few things you can be absolutely excited about and think on those things every day.  I recommend that you bring your own weather with you because it is enough rainy weather in our world that pulls our attitudes down.  When the going gets tough the tough get more excited about their goals of success.  Saturate your walls with pictures of happiness, get a happy apt on your phone, start watching exciting movies, listen to exciting speakers all to keep you in a state of excitement.  You need high energy emotions to break through the gloom and doom that welfare brings.



Start your journey off welfare with a vision broad of exploration.  Find people, pictures of places and things you see as successful and develop a timeline to getting there.  You may not be off welfare completely by the time you get to this stage, but explore places you want to end up now.  Having an end in mind is highly important for you to break this cycle.  You may not go to new places physically, so let your fingers do the traveling on google and find out how others outside your circle of influence really live.  Without a vision your emancipation from welfare is not possible.  Explore new places, gain new friends, read new books, go to new schools, go to new places of worship and find new people that can mentor you in moving toward success.  Develop some new habits like hang gliding, mountain climbing, parachuting or anything that elevates your view of our world.  Make sure your vision board goals stretch you so far that you become a different person in process of obtaining your explorations before you get there.


Many recipients — particularly the “long-term” dependents — welfare clearly pays substantially more than an entry-level jobs.  “In 33 states and the District of Columbia, welfare pays more than an $8-an-hour job” says Michael Tanner a senior fellow at the Cato Institute.   In 12 states and DC, the welfare package is more generous than a $15-an-hour job.  Usually a recipient with little to no education would be hard pressed to give up the luxury welfare.  Nevertheless, you must because of your independence.  An acronym for job to many welfare recipients is just over broke.  Many times you were broke before you got the job and it feels like you are just over that while employed.  One way to change this is to begin looking at yourself as an independent business professional looking for partnerships.  If those partnerships are traditional employment fine, but it is wise to start a small generating business now.  My recommendations are for you to start your own business.  Find out what you are good at whether it is a product or service, and start generating some income.  You are not trying to hit a home run with this small business, just think about getting on base and in the future taking it further.  You want to begin making your own money and paying your way which grows your mindset to stay independent of welfare.


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